Dyslipidemia refers to a lipid profile that increases the risk of atherosclerotic development. Generally accepted, dyslipidemia is a condition in which LDL levels are elevated and HDL levels are low. HDL particles are involved in reverse cholesterol transport, in that they transport cholesterol from tissues and other lipoproteins to the liver. Among the lipoproteins, LDL is most heavily involved in the atherosclerotic process and also oxidation of the LDL causes this lipoprotein to be altered and can initiate damage leading to the atherosclerotic process. In addition, oxidized LDL is more likely to be taken up into the atherosclerotic plaque.
ATP III recommends maintaining an LDL level below 100 mg/dL and HDL <40 mg/dL be considered low, indicating a greater level of Risk, and an HDL of >60 mg/dL is considered high and will in turn reduce risk for AS. When compared with populations that eat diets high in saturated fat, high in sodium, and low in fiber (Westernized Diet), populations that consume diets higher in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and unsaturated fats have lower rates of atherosclerotic disease. The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and Adult Treatment Plan (ATP III) recommended an LDL lowering diet (Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet - TLC) that limits saturated fat intake to <7% of total kcal or less than 16 g for an individual on a 2000 kcal/day diet.