Mitral Annular Calcification is a common degenerative process, involving the fibrous skeleton of mitral valve annulus. Progressive calcium deposition follows the C-shape of the mitral annulus, and involves mostly the base of the posterior leaflet.
The prevalence of MAC increases with age; in addition to age, other conditions that accelerate annular calcification include hypertension and chronic renal failure. Several cohort studies have shown a strong association of MAC with traditional risk factors and also histological similarities of these lesions to atherosclerosis.MAC is associated with occurance of atrial fibrillation, conductive system disease , and adverse events of atherosclerotic disease such as stroke and mortality.
Detection of calcium deposition by echocardiography provides useful marker for the presence of atherosclerotic diseases and has a incremental prognostic value in the high risk population.