Children interstitial lung disease: presentation of the new case

24th International Congress on Pediatrics & 10th Congress on Pediatrics Nursing

11 till 15 October 2012، Tehran - Iran

Presentation Type: Speech
Abstract:

Classifications of interstitial (diffuse) lung disease in adults and children have undergone significant revision in recent years, with advances in our understanding of new entities and the biology and prognostic significance of certain histological patterns. ILD has been estimated to be 3.6 per 1 000 000 in a study in the United Kingdom and Ireland, and the incidence to be 1.32 per 1 000 000 in a recent study from Germany. Affected infants and children present with signs and symptoms of abnormal breathing, including tachypnea, crackles on examination, and diffuse infiltrates on chest radiography. Diagnosis is made by the summation of clinical, radiologic, and pathological findings, with some disorders having characteristic clinical, pulmonary function, or imaging findings lessening the need for biopsy. Treatment and prognosis are disease-specific, and can involve a combination of supportive and pharmacological care. Case presentation: we describe an 11-year-old boy who’s presented with a two-month history of dyspnea on exertion. The only positive history was near drowning in pool when he was 5. The physical examination was unremarkable. A chest radiography and HRCT revealed diffuse dense, bilateral, reticulonodular opacity. Lung biopsy shows severe inflammation, fibrosis and hemorrhage. The patient was started on prednisolone and discharged from hospital with better PFT. Conclusion: Children’s interstitial lung diseases are rare diffuse lung diseases resulting from a variety of pathogenic processes that include genetic factors, association with systemic disease processes, and inflammatory or fibrosis responses to stimuli. Although some disease types overlap with those seen in adults, there are many causes unique to children, particularly those that occur in infancy. Diagnosis is made by the summation of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings, with some disorders having characteristic clinical, pulmonary function, or imaging findings, lessening the need for biopsy. Treatment and prognosis are disease-specific and can involve a combination of supportive and pharmacologic care.