Implantation of Octacalcium phosphate enhances alveolar ridge in rat mandible
Background and Aim: Reconstruction of craniofacial bone defects remains one of the most challenging problems encountered by maxillofacial surgeons. This study was designed to investigate the process of bone formation caused by implantation of octacalcium phosphate at mandibular alveolar ridge of rat.
Methods & Materials: In this experimental animal study, 20 male Sprague Dawley rats were used. Synthetic octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was implanted into the bony defect measuring 3 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth which was surgically created with a bur in the rat mandible. Bone formation at the alveolar ridge was examined histologically between 1 and 4 weeks after implantation.
Result: Osteogenesis was initiated in the center of the defect between the OCP particles and multinucleated giant cells appeared on the implanted materials in 1 week. More apposition of new bone was observed on the implanted octacalcium phosphate in week 2. In addition to bone formation locally around the OCP particles, more apposition of new bone was observed near the defect margin in week 3. At week 4, the defect was almost completely filled with bone, which was in close contact with host bone and implanted OCP was surrounded by newly formed bone. In the control group, bone formation was observed only along and near the defect margin.
Conclusion: Octacalcium phosphate could be used to enhance atrophic alveolar ridge or for filling a tooth socket after extraction.