Improving Self-care Behaviours in Pregnant Women in Zahedan: Applying Self-efficacy Theory

Caspian Journal of Health Research

Volume 1 - Number 1

Article Type: Original Article
Abstract: Objectives: Improving self-care behaviours such as the early detection of any abnormal signs and symptoms in high-risk pregnancies, self-control of weight and control of blood pressure have essential roles in the prevention and reduction of maternal and infant mortality rates. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of an educational intervention based on the self-efficacy theory on improving self-care behaviours among pregnant women. 
Methods: This intervention study was conducted on 300 pregnant women that were referred to health centres in Zahedan was 2014. We used multi-stage random sampling from five different areas in the city of Zahedan, and selected participants according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. In each region, the women at two centres were randomized into two groups consisting of the intervention (n = 150) and controls (n = 150) groups. Data collection tools, including questionnaires (validity and reliability were confirmed respectively), that both groups completed before training. Two training sessions were conducted for the intervention group with practice lectures, questions and answers, focus groups and using slides and educational pamphlet. One and one-half months after the training intervention, both the intervention and control groups completed questionnaires. 
Results: According to the results, knowledge scores changed by a mean of 3.37compared with 0.89, attitude 1.19 compared with 0.07, behaviour 1.01 compared with 0.63 and self-efficacy 2.47 compared with 0.23 in the intervention group after training, compared to the control group. In addition, an independent sample T-test statistical test showed that the difference between the two groups was significant (p < 0.0001). 
Conclusion: The use of an educational intervention based on self-efficacy theory had positive effects on the knowledge of self-care behaviours among participants.