Prediction of Self-actualization Based on Personality Traits and Self-Awareness among Gifted Students

Journal of health sciences and surveillance system

Volume 4 - Number 4

Article Type: Original Article

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in a wide rangeof pathological situations including cardiovascular diseases.This study aimed to investigate the association between serum25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and risk factors of metabolicsyndrome and cardiovascular diseases.Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted on 169adults (88 males, 81 females) aged 19-52 years living in Shiraz,Iran. Anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure weremeasured using standard methods. Blood samples were collectedin fasting state for determination of blood glucose, lipids, and25(OH)D. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of varianceand linear regression using SPSS software.Results: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were considerablyhigher in males. One third of females had vitamin D deficiency(25(OH)D <10 ng/ml) while one third of males exhibited25(OH)D levels >50 ng/ml. In males, systolic and diastolicblood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome scoreincreased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteroldecreased across tertiles of serum 25(OH)D. On the contrary,in females body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndromescore decreased and HDL cholesterol increased across tertilesof 25(OH)D. Linear regression, after controlling for confoundingfactors, showed that diastolic blood pressure (B=0.07; 95% CI:0.02, 0.11; P=0.006), triglycerides (B=0.54; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.85;P=0.001), and metabolic syndrome score (B=0.01; 95% CI: 0.001,0.01; P=0.02) positively and HDL cholesterol (B=-0.05; 95% CI:-0.09, -0.01; P=0.02) inversely associated with tertiles of 25(OH)D concentrations in males. In contrast, BMI (B=-0.06; 95% CI:-0.11, -0.02; P=0.01), waist circumference (B= -0.12; 95% CI:-0.23, -0.01; p=0.04), and metabolic syndrome score (B=-0.02;95% CI:-0.03, -0.01; P=0.01) were inversely and HDL-C (B=0.16;95% CI: 0.02, 0.31; P=0.02) positively associated with 25(OH)D tertiles in females.Conclusion: The results suggest that both low and uppernormal levels of 25(OH)D are associated with increased risk ofcardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome.

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