Relationship between reproductivehormones and oxidative stress with spermDNA integrity
Introduction: Sperm DNA integrity is critical formale fertility and its damage contributes to poorerembryo development, etc. Reproductive hormonesare vital to spermatogenesis and maintenance ofmale reproductive function, and likely play animportant role in human sperm DNA integrity, butthis relationship is not well understood. Therefore,aim of this study was to examine theserelationships.Materials and Methods: In this study, blood andsemen samples were collected from menundergoing evaluation for infertility in AvicennaInfertility Clinic (AIC). According to the semenanalysis results, the men were divided into twogroups: a male factor infertility group (group 1)(n=81) and a non-male factor group (group 2)(n=52). Serum LH, FSH and testosterone weremeasured by chemiluminescence assay; in additionserum DHEA and estradiol were measured by RIA.Sperm DNA damage was examined by toluidineblue (TB) staining method. Amount of spermnuclear protamine was indirectly examined bychromomycin A3 (CM A3) staining method. Totalantioxidant capacity (TAC/oxidative stress index)was measurement by spectrophotometeric assay.Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS 13software.Results: FSH, LH, TB and CMA3 weresignificantly higher in group 1 as compared togroup 2. Testosterone, DHEA, estradiol and TACdid not show significant difference between thetwo groups. In preliminary bivariate analyses TBwere positively associated with LH, FSH and CMA3, but inversely associated with count andmotility. However, Multivariate linear regressionfor variables shows sole significant relationshipbetween TB and CM A3.Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that thoughoxidative stress and reproductive hormones may bethe causes of sperm DNA damage but reduction inthe amount of sperm nuclear protamine, as keyreason, can lead to sperm DNA damage. However,additional studies are needed to investigatewhether there are relationships between spermDNA integrity with reproductive hormones andoxidative stress.