Gender-based reproductive roles within Iranian families: A mixed methods study
Introduction: According to some parts of reproductive rights definition, everyone is entitled to make decisions concerning the reproduction free of discrimination, coercion, and violence. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need to recognize the main domains of reproductive roles and determine their gender-based patterns of decision making. Thus, we conducted a mixed methods study to explore and measure the gender-based reproductive roles within Iranian families; Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we used an exploratory mixed methods design to develop a culture-oriented instrument. In its first qualitative phase, a maximum variation sample of 21 adult men and women in 3 provinces of Iran was used to explore the main domains of reproductive roles within contemporary families. In the second qualitative and quantitative phase, items generation and items reduction were done for developing the instrument. At last, we examined the validity and reliability of our developed instrument. Results: In the first qualitative phase, nine main reproductive roles emerged as follow: Marriage and divorce, sexual matters, conception and pregnancy, delivery, breastfeeding, family planning, gender preference, infertility, and gynecological surgeries. In the second qualitative and quantitative phase, 108 items were generated as the first draft of the instrument. After items reduction and examining its reliability and validity, 19 items were remained as the final version of our instrument. Conclusion: Our findings led to develop a culture- oriented instrument to measure gender-based reproductive roles within Iranian families; which may be applicable to assess the reproductive rights challenges in contemporary families.