The Prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Diseases among Hookah Users in Zahedan, Southeast of Iran

گوارش، مجله انجمن متخصصين گوارش و كبد ايران

دوره 21 - شماره Supple.1

Article Type: Original Article
Abstract: Introduction: Functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGIDs) are most important issue in populations that are increasing yearly especially young adults. This study was aimed to evaluate the Prevalence of FGIDs among hookah user in Zahedan, Southeast of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study carried out on 600 hookah users of Zahedan city in 2015.The map of the Zahedan was divided to 5 districts (north, south, east, west and center). Then a start point selected randomly and all persons of the first hookah place were studied. Then with referring to next nearest hookah place, all persons in it were studied too. The sampling continued until all needed questionnaire filled in each districts. The data was collected using questionnaire and interview. Results: The mean age of the starting for hookah using among male and female was 17.1±6.13 and 21.2±5.6, respectively. About 49.3% of subjects have reported different types of FGIDs. The prevalence of symptoms including peptic ulcer, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), hemorrhoids, abdominal pain and heartburn were 3.9%, 6.1%, 16.1%, 3.1%,41% and 30.2%, respectively. About 44.9%, 17.1%, 3.9% and 2.5% of the subjects complained of distension or bloating, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea after hookah, respectively. The odds of having FGIDs (of all types) was related to daily hookah using pattern (OR= 3.3, P=0.01), being married (OR= 3.2, P=0.01), live in dormitory (OR= 2.7, P=0.05), male sex (OR= 3.1, P=0.045) and jobless (OR= 4.3, P=0.03). Conclusion: The prevalence of FGIDs among hookah users is much more than general population and likelihood of some of these disorders arise after hookah using. Have a good plan according to related factors in this study could be helpful in decreasing the frequency of FGIDs. On the other hand, changes in pattern of hookah using among young adults and informing them regarding its gastrointestinal complications could be effective manner to decrease the hookah using and finally FGIDs.