Adsorption of the reactive azo dyes onto NH4Cl-induced activated carbon
Background: The efficacy of NH4Cl-induced activated carbon (NAC) was examined in order to adsorb RR198, an azo reactive model dye, from an aqueous solution.
Methods: The effects of pH (3 to 10), adsorbent dose (0.1 to 1.2 g/L), dye concentration and contact time on the adsorption efficiency were investigated.
Results: The results showed that the removal of dye was highest at a solution pH of 7 and a powder dose of 1.1 g/L. The 85.9%, 72.6% and 65.4% removal of RR198 was obtained for a concentration of 25, 50 and 100 mg/L, respectively, at a relatively short contact time of 30 minutes, and at optimum pH and NAC concentrations of 1 g/L. The experimental data for kinetic analysis illustrated a best fit to the pseudo-second-order model. The study data on equilibrium were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich models; the Langmuir equation provided the best fit for the data.
Conclusion: Therefore, the NAC appears to be an efficient and appropriate adsorbent for the removal of reactive azo dyes from waste streams.