A Systematic Review on Strategies and Challenges for Prevention and Control of Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity is a global health problem at public and individual levels. It has been of great interest in recent years because of its short- and long-term health consequences. This systematic review presents a summary of the experiences on different family-, school-, and clinic- based interventions, as well as their main strengths and limitations. Articles were obtained from Web of Science, PubMed, and SCOPUS using specified search criteria. All trials have been conducted on children up to 18 were included. Most studies (30/105) were carried on in the United States and were clinical trial (n=70). As children spend a considerable part of their time in school, and adopt some parts of lifestyle there, school-based programs can have long-term effects in a large target group. The most common limitation of these studies is presenting self-reported data, non-randomized selection of schools, short duration of study, and not masking the interventional groups. Because of the crucial role of parents in development of children’s behaviors, family-based interventions are reported to have successful effects. The main limitation of these studies is the small sample size, high dropout rate, no follow up data, and selection bias in participation of motivated families. Clinic-based interventions revealed favorable effects; however the main limitation of some of these studies is lack of comparison with control group, and short-term follow up of participants, and the uncertain sustainability of such kinds of interventions. These findings suggest that among different types of interventional programs, a multidisciplinary approach in schools in which children’s family are involved, can be the best and most sustainable approach for management of childhood obesity.