Genistein, epigenetic & colorectal cancer
The Incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is high in most of nations. Despite the progress in therapeutic modalities, it is one of the most cancer- related death. CRC is result from multiple genetic and epigenetic alternations that are reasons for initiation of neoplastic lesions formation on normal colonic epithelium. Insufficient epigenetic modifications, activates oncogenes and deactivate tumor suppressor, that can leading to various cancers. Dietary intake and epigenetic have closely interaction with each other that proper relation result in normal development. Soy bean contains various bioactive components that are so attractive for their anticancer abilities. One of the most abundant isoflavone found in soy bean is genistein that can block uncontrolled cell growth in colorectal cancer by different mechanisms. As an example, genistein can induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and inhibition of angiogenesis on cancer cells. Effects of genistein are through estrogenic or anti-estrogenic manners. This isoflavone at low doses acts as estrogen agonist so promote cell growth but at higher concentration show inhibitory effect on cell proliferation maybe by suppress tyrosine kinase activity. This isoflavone can regulate gene transcription in cancer cell by epigenetic regulation, such as, DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Phosphorylation, methylation and acetylation on specific residuals of histone or DNA can induce some alternation that can prevent or initiate gene transcription. In this study we aimed to review epigenetic effects of genistein on prevention and prognosis of colorectal cancer.