ABO blood type antigens are polymorphic, inherited structures presented on the surface of red blood cells. Although ABO blood group antigens is the most important antigens in transfusion medicine, its main role is not clearly clarified. Correlation between ABO blood group and susceptibility to certain infectious and non-infectious diseases is a controversial issue. Since, lack of blood type antigens has not been related to significant diseases or health risks. There are many research studies that suffice to prove that blood antigens are biologically active, carbohydrate structures involving to the “cell physiology and human pathology”. This review summarizes the available data concerning the blood group antigens correlation with different aspects of health. We therefore investigated that certain blood type antigens can affect susceptibility to diseases or make a phenotype resistant.