The time course of Akt and ERK activation on XIAP expression in HEK 293 cell line
The cell growth is controlled by the interaction of survival and cell growth arrest pathways as well as apoptosis mechanisms which determine the outcome of cell faith as proliferation or apoptosis. In this study, we have studied the activity of survival pathways, i.e., Akt and ERK1/2 with regard to XIAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) in serum starved and stimulated conditions. The HEK-293 cells were cultured in RPMI + 10% FBS. The cells were serum starved by switching to medium with 1% FBS for 24 h and serum stimulated by changing the medium to 10% FBS following serum starvation. The expression of p-Akt, p-ERK, Akt, ERK and XIAP was studied in various time points using western blot. The apoptosis was evaluated by DNA condensation using Hoechst 33258 and Caspase-3 assay. In serum starved condition expression of p-Akt and XIAP is very low. Serum stimulation increases p-Akt and p-ERK within 5 min and sustains a high level for 30 min. The expression of total Akt and ERK1/2 has not changed significantly for 24 h. XIAP expression starts at 6 h after serum stimulation, reaches to maximum level at 12 h and decreases to baseline within 24 h. Furthermore, serum starvation for 24 h does not induced apoptosis and DNA condensation. Taken together, the results indicate that serum activates Akt and ERK pathways earlier than XIAP expression. Furthermore, XIAP expression is low in serum starvation unlike p-ERK which suggests a survival role for ERK in serums starvation. The expression pattern of XIAP indicates induction by Akt and/or ERK activation which requires further studies.