Single-walled carbon nanotubes as solid-phase microextraction adsorbent for the determination of low-level concentrations of butyltin compounds in seawater
Carbon nanotubes are a kind of new carbon-based nanomaterials, which have drawn great attention in many application fields. The potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) adsorbent for the preconcentration of environmental pollutants has been investigated in recent years. in the present study, the feasibility of SWCNTs as SPME adsorbent for the determination of monobutyltin, dibutyltin and tributyltin in seawater samples was studied. To achieve this aim, the potential factors affecting the SPME efficiency, including extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption time, desorption temperature, and salinity were optimized. The developed method showed good performance according to the ICH (International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Analytical Methods) criteria. The acquired calibration curves were linear (r >= 0.992) over the concentration range from <= 12 to 2000 ng L(-1). For all of the analytes, the limit of detection at signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was below 5 ng L(-1). Furthermore, in comparison with the commercial carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, the developed SWCNT fiber showed better thermal stability (over 350 degrees C) and longer life span (over 150 times). The application of the proposed method in environmental analyses was shown by analyzing seawater samples from the harbors on the Persian Gulf for butyltin residues. Some of the butyltins were detected in the analyzed samples. Results of the present study demonstrate the feasibility of the SWCNTs as SPME adsorbent for the determination of butyltins in seawater samples. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.