Pretreatment with Pentoxifylline and N-Acetylcysteine in Liver Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Renal Injury
Background and Aims: Acute hepatic injury causes systematic inflammatory responses which may finally lead to functional disturbances in remote organs. In this study, the effects of an inhibitor of inflammatory cytokines (pentoxifylline, PTX) and a well-known antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), were evaluated on renal damage and oxidative stress following liver ischemia reperfusion (IR). Method: Five groups of six male rats were used. Group 1 was sham operated. In group 2, 90 min liver partial ischemia was induced by a clamp around both hepatic artery and portal vein and then followed by 4 h of reperfusion. In groups 3 and 4, PTX or NAC was injected intraperitoneally before the ischemia, while in group 5 both drugs were co-administered. The levels of alanine amino-transferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine in serum as well as malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels and morphological changes in renal tissues were assessed. Results: Significant increase in the serum levels of ALT and AST in IR group is indicative of liver functional damages. Elevated BUN and renal tissue MDA, decreased GSH levels, and morphological damages in IR group demonstrate a significant kidney injury and oxidative stress comparing to sham group. Administration of PTX alone and PTX + NAC prevented the IR-induced increase in renal MDA levels. Administration of both drugs and their co-administration prevented the reduction in renal GSH levels and morphological changes. Conclusion: Pretreatment with PTX and NAC before liver IR may be useful to ameliorate renal oxidative damage by preservation of cellular GSH concentration and a reduction in MDA levels.