Periodontal health status and treatment needs in Iranian adolescent population
Background: Use of the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) provides a picture of the public health requirements in the periodontal field, which is essential for national oral health policy-making and specific interventions. Objective: To determine periodontal status and treatment needs by CPITN index in the Iranian adolescents. Methods: The study population consisted of 1,319 subjects aged 15-19 years, selected through a multistage cluster stratified random sampling from 13 different provinces of Iran. Six calibrated qualified examiners, using flat dental mirrors and CPITN probes conducted clinical examinations according to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards. The severity and prevalence of the periodontal diseases, as well as its frequency distribution were evaluated and reported according to gender; residency place; frequency of dental brushing; plaque index; number of family members; mean of decayed, missed, and filled teeth index (DMF); and CPITN. This study was performed during 1999 and 2000. Results: In this study, only 14.5% of subjects demonstrated a healthy periodontal status, with a mean healthy sextant of 2.6. Bleeding was noted in 33.7% of subjects and calculus had the highest score (48.7%). Shallow and deep pockets were found in 3.9% and 0.5% of the population studied, respectively. Periodontal status in men was worse than women (P < 0.005). In urban areas it was better than the rural areas (P < 0.0001). The highest rate of calculus and bleeding were observed in subjects with high plaque index and low frequency of dental brushing (P < 0.005). A statistically significant (P < 0.005) relationship was also observed between CPITN scores and the number of family members. A positive correlation was found between the periodontal status and treatment needs with the DMF index (P < 0.02). Conclusion: We found that a high percentage of adolescents need treatment (TN1, TN2, TN3, 4). If the current trend is not reversed, with increasing the age, periodontal diseases could be escalated.