This research presents a retrospective study of 62 cases of mycetoma in Iran that were diagnosed clinically and microbiologically from 1972 to 2005. In 1972 mycetoma has been first report in Iran by medical mycology department of Tehran University. We retrospectively compared the overall prevalence of mycetoma and the prevalence of infective agent in Iran during 33 years. In this study age, sex, job, infective agent and anatomical site of infection have been considered. Retrospective analysis of the records revealed that the ratio of actinomycetoma and eumycetoma was 42:20 that differed significantly (p<0.01). Actinomadura madurae (n = 11) in actiomycetoma and Psudcdl'escheria boydii (n = 9) in eumycetoma were predominant agents. The male to female ratio was 41:21 and the peak age for infection was between 40-50 years old but there is no a significant differences between age groups (p>0.05) and the earliest age of onset was 18 and the latest 65.The single most common site of infection is foot but generally hand and other limbs can infected and 54.4% of infected area was in palm and disease can infected other area with less frequency. A total of 49 cases were pedal mycetoma and 13 cases were in extra pedal areas. The results show that farmers with 45.2% are at greater occupation risk of mycetoma (p<0.01). © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information.