Extraperitoneal laparoscopic trigonoplasty for treatment of vesicoureteral reflux: Novel technique duplicating its open counterpart
Purpose: We describe a novel technique of extraperitoneal laparoscopic trigonoplasty for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux. Materials and Methods: Three boys and 24 girls with 41 refluxing units underwent extraperitoneal laparoscopic trigonoplasty. A 10 mm incision was made below the umbilicus. With sharp, blunt finger dissection and balloon dilation an extraperitoneal space was created. The bladder was opened using a laparoscopic scissors. Two 3Fr ureteral catheters were inserted intracorporeally into the ureters. A transverse superficial incision was made in the epithelium between the ureteral orifices. The medial aspect of the ureters was cleared of the muscles and attachments, and sutured in the midline with 4-zero polyglactin sutures. Results: Operative time ranged from 60 to 240 minutes (mean 147). Blood loss was less than 50 ml. Adequate extraperitoneal space, bladder opening, epithelial incision, ureteral approximation with secure suturing in the midline and bladder closure were carried out. in all cases. Peritoneal perforation was noted in 4 patients while creating the extraperitoneal space, with suturing needed for 1 large perforation. Hospital stay was 1 to 6 days (mean 2.7). At 4 to 19 months of followup (mean 8.2) reflux had resolved in 38 units (93%). Conclusions: Extraperitoneal laparoscopic trigonoplasty is technically feasible. Results are comparable to open techniques. The major advantage of this procedure is the avoidance of peritoneum. Other advantages include a shorter hospital stay and good cosmesis. More followup is necessary to establish the long-term results.