Effect of exposure parameters on cavitation induced by low-level dual-frequency ultrasound
In order to quantify the effects of exposure parameters under therapeutic conditions such as sonodynamic therapy, it is necessary initially to evaluate the inertial cavitation activity in vitro. In this study, the dependence of cavitation activity induced by the low-level dual-frequency ultrasound irradiation on exposure parameters has been studied. Experiments were performed in the near 150 kHz and 1 MHz fields in the progressive wave mode. It has been shown that at constant ultrasound energy the fluorescence intensity for continuous sonication is higher than for pulsed mode. With increasing the duty cycle of pulsed field, the inertial cavitation activity is increased. The activity of cavitation produced by simultaneous combined sonication by two ultrasound fields is remarkably higher than the algebraic sum of effects produced by fields separately (p-value < 0.05). This study shows that simultaneous combined dual-frequency ultrasound sonication in continuous mode is more effective in producing inertial cavitation activity at low-level intensity. Therefore, it is concluded that investigations in this combined ultrasound sonication can be useful in sonodynamic therapy for superficial tumors. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.