Does the diet of Tehranian adults ensure compliance with nutritional targets? Observations from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Objective: To analyse dietary compliance with WHO/FAO nutritional objectives, identify food subgroups that contribute to discrepancies between dietary intakes and recommendations, and assess food patterns and risk factor profiles at common nutritional targets. Design: The study was a population-based, cross-sectional assessment of the dietary patterns of Tehranian adults. Usual dietary intake was assessed in relation to common nutritional targets of public health (fat, saturated fat, dietary fibre, fruit and vegetables) using a validated FFQ. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors were diagnosed based on the Iranian-modified diagnostic criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Setting: The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2005-2008). Subjects: A total of 2510 individuals (1121 men and 1389 women), aged between 19 and 70 years. Results: Generally, 68.5% of total grain ounce-equivalents were derived from refined grains, with rice making up 36.6% of all grains consumed. Solid fat (61.1%) contributed more to discretionary energy than did added sugars (38.9%). There was a twofold difference in fruit and vegetable consumption between the lowest and highest quartile categories of dietary fibre intake. The probability of having MetS was significantly lower in the highest quartile of fibre intake v. the lowest (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.58, 0.84 v. OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.80, 1.03; P-trend < 0.001), whereas it was higher in the highest quartile of SFA intake v. the lowest (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.78, 0.98 v. OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.62, 0.89; P-trend = 0.01). Conclusions: Complying with common nutritional targets of public health is inversely associated with MetS risk factors in Tehranian adults. These results may initiate measures for future development of regional food-based dietary guidelines.