Differentiation of hepatic cavernous hemangioma from metastases by rare sequence MR imaging
In this study, in order to differentiate cavernous hemangioma and hepatic metastases, rapid acquisition relaxation enhanced (RARE) sequence was used. First, in vivo measurements of T(1), T(2) relaxation times and proton density were obtained using T(1), T(2) calculation protocol (TOMIKON S50, 0.5T) and multipoint techniques. These measurements were made from regions of interest placed over the liver, spleen (because of similarity of relaxation time values between hepatic metastases and spleen) and cavernous hemangioma (HCK). Based on these intrinsic parameters, T(2) curves signal intensity of three different tissues were constructed. At TE = 500 ms, the signal intensity of the liver and spleen has been near zero whereas in HCH, the signal intensity remained. As RARE sequence is very similar to spin echo (SE), by replacing effective TE(ETE) = 500 ms in the RARE equation, two dimensional contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) contour plots were constructed demonstrating signal intensity contrast between liver-spleen, liver-Hemangioma for two different scan times (3 min, 7.5 s) and pulse timing. Then, optimal RARE factor and inter echo times were obtained in order to have maximum CNR between liver-Hemangioma and minimum CNR between liver-spleen. These optimal parameters were performed on ten normal and five persons with known HCH. Images showed that in both scan times (3 min, 7.5 s); the liver and spleen were suppressed whereas the HCH was enhanced. The image quality in the scan time of 3 min was better than the scan time of 7.5 s. Moreover, in this study, two different sequences were compared: i) Multi-slice single echo (MSSE) for T(1) weighted image ii) RARE (ETE = 80 ms) for T(2)-weighted image. This comparison was done to show maximum CNR between liver-spleen (metastases) and to choose a better sequence for detecting metastases. CNR in the RARE sequence was more than in the MSSE sequence. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc.