Congenital neutropenia and primary immunodeficiency disorders: A survey of 26 Iranian patients
Inherited neutropenia is characterized by a decrease in the absolute number of circulating neutrophils and an increased susceptibility to infections. The current study was performed to determine the clinical and laboratory findings of Iranian patients with inherited neutropenias. Records of 26 patients (14 male, 12 female) with inherited neutropenia were reviewed in this study. The patients had been referred to Children's Medical Center, a referral center for immunodeficiency disorders in Iran, during a 22-year period (1981-2003). Primary immunodeficiency disorders of these patients were as follows: cyclic neutropenia (8 patients), Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (7 patients), Kostmann syndrome (6 patients), and Chediak-Higashi syndrome (5 patients). The mean absolute neutrophil count of patients was 398.2 ± 259.3 cells/mm 3 (range 74-1,152/mm3) at the first visit. Twenty-one patients showed severe, four moderate, and one mild neutropenia. Sixteen of these patients had leukopenia, seven anemia, two thrombocytopenia, and one monocytosis. The most common presenting complaints in these patients were oral ulcer, otitis, pneumonia, diarrhea, cutaneous abscess, and oral candidiasis. The patients first manifested symptoms of infection suggesting neutropenia at a median age of 7.5 months (range 1 month to 10 years). During follow-up, respiratory infections developed in 24 cases, oral manifestations in 20 patients. The most common infections, in descending order of frequency, were otitis media, abscesses, pneumonia, oral ulcers, acute diarrhea, cutaneous infections, oral candidiasis, and periodontitis. Less frequent infections were sinusitis, cystitis, conjunctivitis, meningitis, and osteomyelitis. Nonspecific symptoms (hepatomegaly and splenomegaly) were also detected in 10 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Three patients died of recurrent infections. The infectious manifestations both at presentation and during follow-up in inherited neutropenia were similar. Although inherited neutropenias are rare, recurrent infections always deserves further evaluation for detecting such disorders. Copyright © 2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.