Changes in concentration of trace elements in urine, serum, and saliva as indices of gentamicin nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats
Male Wistar rats were treated with gentamicin in. repeated doses (5 x 100 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The concentrations of trace elements (zinc and copper) in urine, serum, and pure saliva obtained from submandibular glands were determined 24 h and 20 d after the last administration of the drug. At the same time, kidneys and submandibular glands were examined histopathologically by electron microscopy. Rats receiving gentamicin demonstrated phospholipidosis at the end of 5 d of administration. At the same time, elevated zinc and copper levels in urine, increased zinc levels in serum, and decreased copper levels in serum and zinc levels in saliva were observed. Twenty days after the last injection, the levels of these metals were comparable to the control group and none of the sections demonstrated phospholipidosis. Based on these results, it may be concluded that certain changes in the levels of these metals in serum and saliva could also be an indicator of acute gentamicin nephrotoxicity.