A cephalometric study on craniofacial morphology of Iranian children with beta-thalassemia major
Objective - To study cephalometric and facial features of Iranian children with beta-thalassemia major. Design - Lateral cephalometric radiographs of thalassemic patients and controls who were matched for age, sex and ethnic origin were analyzed and compared. Setting and Sample Population - A total of 30 thalassemic patients ( 18 male and 12 females) from Aliasghar Hospital, and 30 controls from the Orthodontic Department of Azad University. Outcome measure - Size and shape differences in the craniofacial complex between thalassemic patients and controls. Results - All thalassemic patients had a Class II skeletal base relationship with an average ANB angle of 8.75 degrees. There was no record of dramatic maxillary prognathism. However, the mandible of the thalassemic patients appeared to be smaller in size and more retruded in the face. A pronounced vertical growth direction was evident from angular and linear measurements. The dental deviations in thalassemic patients were mainly seen in the proclination and significant overeruption of incisors and increased overjet. Marked convex lower face and prominent upper and lower lips were evident from soft-tissue measurements. Conclusion - Anemia does not only produce overgrowth of the maxilla. It also produces a retardation of condylar and ramal growth of the mandible producing Class II skeletal pattern.