Epidemiologic feature of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (adhd) in elementary school children
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorders starting from childhood that has afflicted 3-5% of school children. ADHD has destructive effects on people's social, educational, personality, and behaviuoral relationships in childhood and adulthood. This cross-sectional school based study included all the students studying in grades one to five at elementary schools in Khorramabad (N=945), Iran. Eight girls and 8 boys schools were selected using a cluster, multi-stage sampling method. The Child Symptom Inventories-4 (CSI4) standardised questionnaire was used to collect the data. The questionnaires were completed by teachers and parents in separate meetings. The cases that showed ADHD underwent clinical examinations by psychiatrists. The results were analysed via descriptive statistics and X-2 tests using the SPSS software. Out of 945 children, 50.7% and 49.3% were girls and boys respectively. Among the people studied, 3.17% suffered from ADHD including 40% from attention deficit, 33.3% from hyperactivity, and 26.6% from the combined type. ADHD was more prevalent in boys than in girls (4.9% vs. 1.5%). There was a significant relationship between children's gender and ADHD (p<0.005). The students in grade 5 showed the lowest, and those in grades 2 and 3 showed the highest ADHD rates. However, no significant relationships were found between parents age, educational level, occupation, income, grade, and psychiatric problems in family. Identifying behavioral disorders including ADHD in school children and adolescents, due to their high prevalence, seems to be necessary. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate ADHD prevalence in elementary school students of Khorramabad.