Prevalence of refractive errors in students with and without color vision deficiency
Purpose: To evaluate refractive errors in school age children with color vision deficiency (CVD) and those with normal color vision (NCV) in order to make a better understanding of the emmetropization process. Methods: A total of 4,400 primary school students aged 7-12 years were screened for color vision using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic color vision plate sets. Of these, 160 (3.6%) students had CVD. A total of 400 age- and sex-matched students with NCV were selected as controls. Refractive status was evaluated using objective cyclorefraction. Results: The CVD group included 136 male (85%) and 24 female (15%) subjects with mean age of 10.1 ± 1.8 years. The NCV group comprised of 336 male (84%) and 64 female (16%) subjects with mean age of 10.5 ± 1.2 years. The prevalence of myopia (7.7% vs. 13.9%, P < 0.001) and hyperopia (41% vs. 57.4%, P = 0.03) was significantly lower in the CVD group. Furthermore, subjects with CVD subjects demonstrated a lower magnitude of refractive errors as compared to the CVD group (mean refractive error: +0.54 ± 0.19 D versus + 0.74 ± 1.12 D, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Although the lower prevalence of myopia in subjects with CVD group supports the role of longitudinal chromatic aberration in the development of refractive errors; the lower prevalence of hyperopia in this group is an opposing finding. Myopia is a multifactorial disorder and longitudinal chromatic aberration is not the only factor influencing the emmetropization process.