Topical cyclosporine a for treatment of dry eye due to chronic mustard gas injury
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of topical cyclosporine A (tCsA) for treatment of dry eye disease in patients suffering from chronic ocular complications of mustard gas (MG) injury. Methods: This interventional case series included patients with MG injury suffering from severe dry eye despite receiving artificial tears and punctal plugs. Patients were administered tCsA 0.05% twice daily for 3 months. Severity of the condition was evaluated by measuring tear osmolarity, ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear break-up time (TBUT), and Schirmer's test at baseline and at the end of study. Results: A total of 34 patients with chronic MG injury and mean age of 47.1 ± 6.5 years were studied. Compared to baseline values, tear osmolarity (301.7 ± 11.5 vs. 286.3 ± 7.9 mOsmol/L, P < 0.001) and OSDI (47.5 ± 7.2 vs. 42.7 ± 7.1, P < 0.001) were significantly improved. Likewise, Schirmer's test (4.6 ± 1.3 vs. 5 ± 1.3 mm, P < 0.001) and TBUT (1.9 ± 1.4 vs. 2.7 ± 1.5 s, P < 0.001) also significantly recovered at the end of the study. Conclusion: TCsA 0.05% reduces tear osmolarity and improves dry eye symptoms and can serve as an efficacious treatment for ocular complications in patients with chronic MG injury.