Micronuclei versus Chromosomal Aberrations Induced by X-Ray in Radiosensitive Mammalian Cells
Background: An experimental study was accomplished to compare estimation methods of ionizing radiations genotoxicity in mammalian cell cultures by means of two cytogenetic parameters with focus on aberrant cells characterized by multiple chromosomal damages.
Methods: In vitro study was carried out on the genotoxicity of low-medium doses of 190 kV X-rays absorbed in Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures. Micronuclei and ten types of chromosomal aberrations were identified with Giemsa dying and optical microscope screening.
Results: The first parameter consisting in micronuclei relative frequency has led to higher linear correlation coefficient than the second one consistent with chromosomal aberrations relative frequency. However, the latter parameter estimated as the sum of all chromosomal aberrations appeared to be more sensitive to radiation dose increasing in the studied dose range, from 0 to 3 Gy. The number of micronuclei occurring simultaneously in a single cell was not higher than 3, while the number of chromosomal aberrations observed in the same cell reached the value of 5 for doses over 1 Gy.
Conclusion: Polynomial dose-response curves were evidenced for cells with Ni micronuclei (i=1,3) while non-monotonic curves were evidenced through detailed analysis of aberrant cells with Ni chromosomal changes (i = (1,5) ) in concordance with in vitro studies from literature. The investigation could be important for public health issues where micronucleus screening is routinely applied but also for research purposes where various chromosomal aberrations could be of particular interest.